Dillenburg Castle was built on top of the peak now called the Schlossberg in the late 13th or early 14th century.
The name comes from a small brook called the Schelde that rises between Oberscheld and Tringenstein and flows into the Dill at Niederscheld.
In 1875, the Wilhelmsturm (tower), views from which can be seen in this article, was completed on the Schlossberg. The "casemates" under the former stately home are among the biggest defensive works in Europe. In the 19th century came the Industrial Revolution with the building of the Deutz–Gießen railway and the use of iron ore found on the Lahn, Dill and Sieg.
Many mines, foundries and metalworking operations came into being in the region.
The Mining was quite important for Oberscheld, there was a blast furnace, the blast furnace was closed in 1969.
Oberscheld had a station, the last train ran in Oberscheld in 1987.